Milk is heated at a very high temperature to the kill the harmful bacteria without losing its flavour or nutritional value.
Milk is processed and the fat globules in it are broken, due to which the fat spreads evenly, preventing the formation of the creamy layer (malai) on top. However, the nutritional and fat content remains the same.
Another categorisation is based on the presence of fat:
Whole milk or full cream milk is full of flavour, is much thicker and creamier and contains high amount of fat. It is ideal for children, growing teenagers and body builders. One glass of whole milk contains approximately 3.5% milk fat (150 calories).
Skimmed milk has almost zero fat content (0.3% to 0.1%). Even though it contains all the nutrients of whole milk, it gives only half the calories of full cream milk. A glass of skimmed milk without sugar is around 80 calories. It is good for weight watchers.
Toned milk is made by adding skimmed milk powder and water to whole milk. It contains about 3.0% fat. It restricts the body from absorbing cholesterol from the milk to quite an extent. Toned milk contains the same amount and type of nutrition as whole milk does, only minus the fat soluble vitamins. One glass of toned milk contains 120 calories. The consistency is little thinner than the whole milk.
Double Toned Milk
This milk is also obtained by adding skimmed milk power to whole milk. It has about 1.5% fat content. Double toned milk is idyllic for those who are trying to maintain weight and is recommended for heart patients. The consistency is much thinner than toned milk. Categorisation based on the milked animal:
It is less thick and creamier, high on cholesterol but low on fat and calories and is easily digestible. Spoilage time is less. Preferred for small children.
It is much thicker and creamier, low on cholesterol but high on fat and calories. Preserved time is more as compared to cow’s milk. Ideal for dairy products like khoya, paneer, sweets and other dairy stuff.