- Type I Diabetes: When body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas
- Type II Diabetes: When either the body does not make enough insulin or is not able to utilise the present insulin properly
- Gestational Diabetes: Pregnant women get it in their second trimester of pregnancy
Causes of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
It is an autoimmune disorder. A combination of genetic predisposition and some other factors incite the immune system to attack the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.
Type 2 Diabetes
It is occurs due to insulin resistance, which means that the body is not able to utilize the insulin made by pancreas how it should, hence glucose does not move out from blood into body cells. After a while, the excess built-up of sugar in the blood starts creating a problem for pancreas itself making it produce less insulin.
- Obesity: It is a leading cause for insulin resistance. People with type 2 diabetes are mostly obese.
- Hereditary: Genetic factors contribute in increasing likelihood of causing type 2 diabetes. Family History of the diabetes plays a significant role in getting the disease.
- Other risk factors
- Being 40 or older
- History of gestational diabetes (high sugar levels during pregnancy)
- Blood vessel disease (narrowing of the blood vessels)
- High blood pressure & high cholesterol
- Polycystic ovary syndrome, Schizophrenia
- Pre-diabetes or impaired fasting glucose
- Giving birth to a large baby
Increased levels of certain female hormones during pregnancy hamper the ability of insulin to manage sugar and leads to insulin resistance.