Diabetes Type 1 & Type 2 - Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition in which the body's ability to produce or respond to a hormone called insulin is hampered. This leads to an abnormality in the metabolism of carbohydrates and increased blood glucose level in blood.

Diabetes Type 1 & Type 2 - Diagnosis and Treatment

Diabetes Diagnosis:

Let’s understand what tests are used in the Diabetes diagnosis.

Diabetes Test Diabetes Type1 and Type2
Glycated Hemoglobin or A1C Test
  • This test indicates the average blood sugar level (BSL) for the last 2-3 months. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more haemoglobin is attached to the sugar.
  • 6.5% or higher of A1C level on 2 separate tests indicates diabetes.
Random Blood Sugar Test
  • This test can be done irrespective of whether you have eaten and when you have taken your meal. This test is done randomly to find the BSL levels.
  • A random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL and above indicates diabetes.
Fasting Blood Sugar Test
  • Overnight fasting is required.
  • Fasting BSL: 100-125 mg/dL is prediabetes.
  • 126 mg/dL or more on 2 separate tests indicates diabetes.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Over night fasting is required.
  • You are asked to consume a glucose drink and then the BSLs are tested over the next 2 hours
  • BSL: 140 and 199 mg/dL indicate prediabetes.
  • BSL: 200 mg/dL or more after 2 hours indicates diabetes.

Treatment and Management of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Let's understand the different aspects of diabetes treatment and its management.

Diabetes Medication:

are prescribed to keep the blood sugar levels in control.

Insulin Injections and Insulin Pumps:

are mainly used Insulin dependent diabetes.

Healthy Diet:

A healthy diabetes diet consists of:

  • The diet basically should include all the foods that have a low glycemic index
  • Carbohydrates intake should be controlled
  • Coordinate and plan your meals along with the medications
  • Avoid sweetened beverages
  • Have fruits, veggies, whole grains, and high fibre content foods

Regular Exercise:

Any person who is physically inactive is directly prone to the risk of diabetes. Hence one should maintain a healthy weight by exercising regularly. You can indulge in the following activities to stay fit and active:

  • Brisk Walking
  • Swimming
  • Cycling
  • Aerobics

Stay Hydrated:

Remember dehydration can affect the blood sugar levels.

Quit Smoking:

Tobacco consumption results in increased BSL and eventually leads to insulin resistance. More smoke results greater the risk of diabetes.

Avoid Alcohol:

Alcohol causes the following effects:

  • Moderate alcohol consumption may cause increase in the blood sugar.
  • Excess consumption of alcohol decreases the blood sugar level. It could drop to a dangerous level, especially in type 1 diabetes.

Regular Health Checkup:

The blood sugar levels need to be regularly monitored in Diabetes. This helps in the easy management of the condition.

Diabetes is a fatal disease if the blood sugar levels are not controlled. Hence extreme care must be taken to prevent any fluctuations in these levels. In diabetes, prevention is better than cure hold utmost importance. Get your health regularly monitored by a comprehensive health checkup packages by Indus Health Plus, the preventive health specialist.

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